At the beginning of August 2017, there are 95 ultra-high skyscrapers in the world. Architects around the world are trying to surpass previous achievements. With the development of technologies, the invention of modern building materials and the creation of fundamentally new structures, it became possible to erect buildings above 300 meters. Until the 19th century, increasing the height of buildings meant thickening the walls, which had to support the weight of the structure. Creating elevators and metal frames for walls freed the hands of architects and engineers. Now the tallest buildings in the world are striking in their grandeur and technical novelty.
2017 was a record year for the construction of skyscrapers, according to Designtalk. Last year, the construction of 144 skyscrapers with a height of more than 200 meters was completed. Tall buildings appeared in 69 cities in 23 countries, which is significantly more than in 2016 (54 cities and 18 countries).
Burj Khalifa, Dubai (UAE)
The tallest buildings in the world. Burj Khalifa.
Burj Khalifa (Arabic for “tower of the Khalifa”) is the tallest building in the world. Its height is 828 meters, with 180 meters falling on the spire. Construction of the skyscraper began in 2004. The average speed of construction is 1-2 floors per week. The Foundation of the Burj Khalifa is not fixed in the rock. The Foundation of the building used hanging piles with a length of 45 m and a diameter of 1.5 m. There are about 200 such piles in total. The shape of the building is asymmetric to reduce the effect of swaying from the wind. Four thousand people took part in the construction. The construction of the skyscraper lasted for 5 years. Continue reading
This is the only Museum in Russia dedicated to the history of playing cards. The Museum appeared in Peterhof not by chance, because it was here in the summer that a select society gathered for dinner parties, masquerades and court balls. At balls not only danced, but also played cards. In six halls of the Museum there are more than 8 thousand exhibits. In addition to playing cards, these are items of fine and decorative arts that represent the game and its attributes, or are directly related to it, as well as a library that is unique in its composition. In the Windows you can see playing cards from different countries-Japanese, Chinese, English, Spanish, French, German and Russian for playing tarok, bezik, whist, bridge, Lotto cards, cards for solitaire and fortune telling.
There are maps of various sizes and shapes from huge 10×16 cm to very small 2×5 cm, rectangular, oval, round, zigzag, made of various materials – paper, cloth, mica.
Among the rarities of the Museum – one of the earliest decks, the so-called “Deck with peddlers”, created in Germany in 1690, and the original Atlas maps of the painter A. I. Charlemagne, made in the Renaissance style. Of great interest are Chinese cards for the game of Manjong and Japanese cards for the game”one Hundred poets”.
The last room is dedicated to modern playing cards, including advertising, campaigning, souvenir, anniversary and political cards. Special attention is drawn to “prison maps” created from Newspapers.”
“What a miracle! This great, this solemn, this is huge! And yet so delicate, so airy and graceful!” Mark TWAIN
Extremely huge white marble Cathedral in the main square of Milan is one of the most famous buildings in Europe. It is the largest Gothic Cathedral and the fourth largest Catholic Cathedral in the world, after the cathedrals of our lady of Peace in ivory coast. St. Peter’s in Rome and St. Paul’s in London. Among the Gothic buildings in terms of capacity, it is second only to the Seville Cathedral in Spain. One only of statues in the Cathedral there are more than three thousand. Beauty of the Milan Cathedral is often compared to the Sagrada Familia. but the Milanese say their Cathedral is much older and more beautiful.
Myths and facts
Milan Cathedral was under construction forever. On the spot where once stood the sanctuary of Celtic, then Roman temple of Minerva, at the beginning of the V century Saint Ambrose constructed the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore. When a fire in 1075 year damaged the building, it was restored as a Cathedral. Continue reading
The history of Jericho goes back centuries. Archaeological excavations have determined the age of the city is eight thousand years BC. The name Jericho means moon, month “yareach”.
The name of the city tells that it was compared with nocturnal luminary of the earth and, therefore, was of great importance. It has a unique location below sea level to 260 meters.
Now it is located on Palestinian territory in the Jordan river, with its Western side, about a dozen miles from the Dead sea.
This ancient city has a rich history. Many times he was destroyed, but was reborn from the ashes like a Phoenix. Despite the destruction, Jericho was inhabited since the moment of Foundation till the present time continuously. And where people live, there is history of humanity.
The bronze age
The city is repeatedly mentioned in the Bible. Perhaps those fragments of walls Dating to the bronze age, which archaeologists have found, are those, which was destroyed with a loud sound of trumpets, called in the old Testament Jericho.
You need to tell us a little about biblical history, which is the oldest city in the world – Jericho. The old Testament povestvuet that in 12-13 centuries BC, the Hebrews, rukovoditelyam Naveen, came to conquer Jericho. They surrounded the walled city. Continue reading
The classical expression of the Gothic style got in France — the Motherland of Gothic cathedrals. In the 12-14 centuries is the Association of French lands, the state is formed, laying the Foundation of national culture. The first monuments of French Gothic architecture originated in the province of Ile-de-France (Saint-Denis Abbot Suger), the heart of the Royal possessions. In these temples preserved some features of Romanesque architecture: the massive walls of smooth, sculpted sculpting models, the heaviness of the towers of the facade, the clarity of the compositions, calm horizontal divisions on four tiers, massive monumental simplicity of forms, the parsimony of the décor.
The greatest buildings of the early Gothic Cathedral of Notre Dame (Notre Dame, founded in 1163, completed until the mid 13th century; the crown of chapels in the early 14th century Il. 81, 82), characterized, in spite of numerous completion, the integrity of the appearance.
The hunchback of Notre Dame Continue reading