10 of the oldest artifacts in the world
Mankind has always sought to preserve its history and leave at least part of it to their descendants. Therefore, any vintage discovery greatly stirred the minds and hearts of common people and scientists.
1. The oldest book in Europe
The oldest book in Europe in solid leather cover in red, also perfectly preserved, is the gospel of Saint Cuthbert (also known as the gospel Stonyhurst), which was written in Latin in the seventh century. Its fully digitized version is now available on the Internet. The book is a copy of the gospel of John, and it was put into the coffin of Saint Cuthbert more than 1300 years ago. When the Vikings began raiding the northeast coast of England, the monastic community left the island of Lindisfarne, taking with them the coffin and the book, and settled in Durham. The coffin was opened in 1104 and the gospel a long time passed from hand to hand until it came to the Jesuits.
2. The oldest official coin
Before coins started to release States, early coin-like marks were minted wealthy merchants and influential members of society. Most experts agree that the world’s first coin is the third of a stater, minted by the Lydian king Aliotta between 660 and 600 BC On one side of the coin depicted the head of a snarling lion, and on the other side for pressed double square. The coin was made of electrum, a gold pleasurable.
3. The oldest wooden structure
The oldest wooden building located near the Buddhist temple Polecat-JI temple in the Japanese city of Ikaruga. Four buildings have survived intact to the present day, although their construction began in 587 BC (Asuka period) by order of the Emperor Jomaa and his successors completed the temple in the year 607. The original complex burned in the year 670, but was reconstructed in the year 710. The building complex consists of a Central five-story pagoda, Golden hall, inner gate and the wooden corridor that surrounds the Central area.
4. The oldest image of a man
Venus of Hole-Fels is the oldest statue in the world depicting humans. Venus 40 thousand years, its height is about 6 cm, and it is carved from mammoth Tusk. The figures have no head, but with special emphasis on the Breasts, buttocks and vulva. Most likely, it served as an amulet or a symbol of fertility, which was worn as a pendant. Venus was excavated in 2008 in the caves of Hole-Fels near Ulm in South-West Germany. By the way, these caves are a treasure trove of finds associated with prehistoric people.
5. The most ancient musical instruments
In 2012, scientists discovered the world’s oldest musical instruments in the age of 42-43 thousand years. These ancient prototypes of flutes carved from mammoth ivory and bird bones were found in a cave Hessenkassel in the upper Danube, southern Germany. On the basis of the finds from this cave was made a conclusion that people came to this land thousands of years ago 39-40. The flute could be used for recreation or religious rituals.
6. The most ancient rock cave paintings
Until 2014 the ancient paintings had images of animals of the late Paleolithic (30 to 32 thousand years), found in Chauvet cave in France. However, in September 2014 scientists have discovered cave paintings on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, East of Borneo, whose age is not less than 40 thousand years. They depict local animals and handprints. One of the images called Babirussa (local kind of pig) was officially established age – low 35400 years, making it the oldest specimen of fine art.
7. The oldest working mechanical clock
The world’s oldest working mechanical clock is located in the Salisbury Cathedral in southern England. They were created in 1836 by order of the Bishop of Arguma and consists of a wheel and gear system, which the ropes are attached to the bell of the Cathedral. The clock strikes every hour. Another, older age mechanical clock was commissioned in Milan in 1335, but today they do not function.
8. The most ancient masks
The most ancient masks is a collection of Neolithic stone masks the age of 9 thousand years, found on the territory of modern Israel. All masks were discovered in the Judean desert and the Judean hills and is currently exhibited at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. They represent a stylized face (some of them look like skulls), with holes along the edges, apparently, to wear. However, these holes could be used for hanging masks as decorative or ritual objects on poles or the altars. The researchers note that the carving of masks are made so that they were quite comfortable to wear: for example, eyes cut considering the fact that the person had a wide field of view.
9. The most ancient sample of abstract design
In 2007 archaeologists who have studied the shells of mollusks, collected on the island of Java in Indonesia found embossed patterns and symmetrical holes on their surface. In 2014 a group of researchers confirmed that the shells were processed by some tools and abstract patterns were clearly done by human hand. Using a microscope, it was found that they are carved using shark teeth. Nevertheless, it is premature to call this evidence convincing, at least until you find more of these artifacts. Although now it’s still the oldest Doodle on earth made by ancient artists-abstractionist.
10. The most ancient working tools
The oldest tools were found in the Ethiopian countryside Kada Gona, and their age varies between 2.5-2.6 million years. This is the most ancient artifacts on Earth that are related to human activity. The tools consist of pieces of rock with sharp edges and, most likely, was used to separate meat from the bones. Despite the fact that it was discovered about 2600 samples of such guns, next to them there was no human remains that questioned the purpose of these artifacts. By the way, similar instruments with installed age of 2.3-2.4 million years have been found in other parts of Africa.