The classical expression of the Gothic style got in France — the Motherland of Gothic cathedrals. In the 12-14 centuries is the Association of French lands, the state is formed, laying the Foundation of national culture. The first monuments of French Gothic architecture originated in the province of Ile-de-France (Saint-Denis Abbot Suger), the heart of the Royal possessions. In these temples preserved some features of Romanesque architecture: the massive walls of smooth, sculpted sculpting models, the heaviness of the towers of the facade, the clarity of the compositions, calm horizontal divisions on four tiers, massive monumental simplicity of forms, the parsimony of the décor.
The greatest buildings of the early Gothic Cathedral of Notre Dame (Notre Dame, founded in 1163, completed until the mid 13th century; the crown of chapels in the early 14th century Il. 81, 82), characterized, in spite of numerous completion, the integrity of the appearance.
The hunchback of Notre Dame
It is built in the center of the ancient part of Paris, on the île de La Cité, formed over the Seine. The Cathedral — five-naval Basilica with a slightly projecting transept, a square mesh of the main nave. The Western facade is harmonious in its proportions, clear tiered divisions and the balance of shapes. Three promising in-depth portal ogival shape reveal the thickness of the basement, stressing the stability of the construction. Over the entire width of the facade is the so-called “gallery of kings”. Window-rosebud deep semicircular arch celebrates its diameter of the Central nave and the height of the arch. Rose flanking Lancet Windows light the halls of the first floor of the towers. Carved cornice and a graceful blind arcade of thin columns give lightness and slimness the top of the building. The composition of the façade, built on a gradual simplification of forms, is completed by two rectangular towers rising above the roofs. All openings of the portals, Windows, arches vary in shape ogival arches, are some gentle in the lower belt and pointed at the top that tells the dynamic façade, the viewer creates a sense of aspiration of all forms up.
The sculptural decoration of the Cathedral remained only on the tympanum, PA concave surfaces of the portal, on the ground floor.
Each Gothic Cathedral had its own individual face, bore the imprint of a sincere inspiration of builders-masons. The most faithful representation of the initial appearance of French Gothic churches gives Chartres Cathedral, created on the eve of the heyday of classic French Gothic.
It captures the viewer with a sense of natural power. Strict monumental forms, arches, imbued with mighty power, bear the seal of the violent, cruel and heroic era of the first half of the 13th century
This is a wonderful example of the merging of powerful architectural masses and lines, sculptures and a huge, sparkling, shimmering stained glass double window, surmounted by a rose. They have survived almost entirely in its original form and create a special light and color atmosphere, constantly changing depending on the state of nature.
The Mature Gothic period marked by further improvement of frame construction, the growth of verticalism lines and dynamic upwards. The abundance of sculpture and stained glass of fine compounding-spectacular nature of cathedrals. Reims Cathedral (founded in 1211; completed in 15th century) — the place of coronation of French kings — implemented creative national genius of France.
He was perceived by people as a symbol of national unity. A giant temple stomatognatico length with high vosmidesyatitonnye towers is one of the most solid creatures of Gothic, is a wonderful embodiment of the synthesis of architecture and sculpture.
Compared to Notre Dame all forms of the Western façade of Reims Cathedral thinner; the proportions of finials, extended portals, arches are pointed. Uncontrollable flow of lines and masses, rising only slightly delayed by a horizontal articulation. The main theme expressed in energy growing upward movement of the giant arched portals and adjacent buttresses. The portals closed five pointed vinagame, decorated with carvings. The average portal higher and wider, the tip of his vimperg, breaking the horizontal line of the cornice, directs the eye skyward. Countless design details, traffic vertical rod, flying buttresses, pinnacles (peaked turrets), Lancet arches, columns, buttresses, spires repeated in the following tiers in different variations and rhythms of the main theme, as if like a many-voiced choir. The motion slows down, settles down in the center of the second floor of a huge rose and is growing rapidly in the lateral parts in units, acute pointed arches of the galleries, culminating in a powerful take-off towers. The transitions between the individual forms, layers soften a picturesque play of light and shade, not removing, however, the rigors of architectonic solutions. Numerous sculptures of the Cathedral echoed with the noisy urban crowd that fills the festival area. Figures of saints that appear in orderly rows, forming friezes, gather in groups, they stand alone amid the portals or in niches, as if greeting the visitors. The statues are woven in ornamental rows, subject to the basic architectural lines. Architectural and sculptural decoration of the Cathedral is permeated with a single rhythm and perceived as a complete whole, as an expression of the highest order, as an ideal, striking the polysyllabic world.
The Amiens Cathedral
In Amiens Cathedral, the most fully expressed the flowering of Gothic architecture in France. While the Reims Cathedral is impressive in appearance, in which the leading role acquired a sculpture, Amiens Cathedral is admired for its interior — a light, huge, free space. Lit by stained glass Windows, it was warm and radiant. The Central nave of the Cathedral is of great height (40 m) and long (145 m). The nave, wide transept, choir and chapels have become less independent parts, merging with a wide space of the interior. The façade is extremely rich in character and complete fusion of architecture and sculpture. In Amiens the temple, however, there is no harmony between his inner and outer appearance. Chased a rich façade with three portals-depth is perceived only as the shell of a huge inner space, bordered by stained glass, surrounding wall sculpture foliated garlands.
Amiens Cathedral in the appear and the features of the Gothic type, the transition to the late stage of flamboyant Gothic. Classic proportions balance is disturbed, and the harmony of parts.
In the second half of the 13-14 centuries. still started to build cathedrals, but typical is the construction of small chapels on the order of the guilds or individuals.
Wonderful creation developed French Gothic two — storey Royal Holy chapel (Sainte-Chapelle, 1243-1248), built on île de La Cité in Paris under Louis IX. It is characterized by impeccable elegance of the total composition and perfection of all proportions stability and flexibility of the external appearance. At the top of the Church wall was completely replaced high (15 m) Windows filling the spaces between the thin legs of the arches. Amazing effect in this fragile building to create a multi-color purple red stained glass Windows, shining the pure resonant colours. The Western facade is decorated with cutting through the width of the rose, executed in the 15th century one of the great monuments of the 13th century, the Abbey of Mont Saint-Michel.