Russian Bastion Of The Knights Templar
Theories of different researchers about the knights Templar
In Western historiography for the past many years the trend was broad-based development in the study of the history of the Order of the Temple. The main thesis of these works is in the title of the Chapter. In Paris book shops and publishers offer many works and treatises, dedicated to the Order; some of them acceptable, others almost absurd. However, relative to French scientists Umberto Eco wrote: “the Carelessness of the French scientists concerning bibliographic footnotes are well-known. But this case has surpassed most of the bad expectations.” These words fully apply to research on the history of the Order. In fact, in the last quarter-century about the knights Templar have been put forward the most extravagant hypotheses, some of them, however, are not without Foundation.
1. The Templars and Gothic architecture. There is an opinion that the Templars or were the inspirers of the idea of Gothic cathedrals or Gothic cathedrals were built, or gave money to their building. Jacques de MAHIEU claims that less than a century the Templars built 80 cathedrals and smaller churches 70. Inge Ott talks about the development of the ideas of a Gothic Cathedral architects of the Order and describes the participation of the Order of architects in the construction of cathedrals. The main question is usually: how do the Templars took huge sums necessary for the construction of a Gothic Cathedral? In stroitelstva participated is usually around 150 people, each of them received a 3-5 su on the day. A special fee was the architect. In the Cathedral, there were on average about two to three thousand stained glass Windows. The stained glass alone was worth an average of 15 to 23 pounds. For comparison: the butcher in 1235 on the street Sablon in Paris cost 15 livres; the house of a rich man on a Small bridge in 1254 — 900 livres; the construction of the castle of the count de Dreux in 1224 cost him 1175 Parisian livres and two pairs of dresses.
Nothing surprising in the participation of the knights Templar in the construction of Gothic cathedrals personally, I don’t see. After all, they were the best architects and experienced team of builders. The need for the construction of comture, paving roads, etc. by themselves increased the skill of the masons. On the financial side of construction please note that the fee is not necessarily made work money — it’s probably about feeding the builders of the Templars — there is nothing unusual or difficult.
2. The Templars and America. Some researchers argue that the wealth of the Templars has its origin to the silver mines of South America. On regular flights of Templars in America mention Baigent, Ott and especially de Maya. Last zealously defends this point of view, but his argument is built on sand. For example, de MAHIEU writes about the sculptured images of Indians (so-called panotii) on the pediment of the temple of the XII century, the knights Templar in the city Merely in Borgone. supposedly these Indians with big ears had seen the Templars in America and sculptural captured. The fact, of course, good, but de Maya leads a photo of the pediment. I found this pediment: the photo shows a fragment of the tympanum relief of the “descent of the Holy spirit on the apostles” in the Church of St. Madeleine in Vézelay (the History of art of foreign countries: the Middle ages and the Renaissance. — M. 1982. — Fig. 69). This Church was built in 1125-1135. The knights Templar then has only gained momentum and construction have not led, and even if they did, we still have the Templar fleet did not yet exist, and if they wanted to get to America they couldn’t. On the seal with the inscription “Secretum Templi” really is the image that at first glance resembles the Indian. But anyone familiar at least superficially with the mystical teachings immediately recognize in this image of Abraxas. The remaining arguments de Maya even weaker.
3. The connection of the Templars with Gnosticism, katharismos, Islam and heretical teachings. This is perhaps the most extensive field for researchers. That’s the only Templar here not credited: from katarismo in order to establish the idea of creative unity of all bloods, races and religions — that is, the state of a new type of religion that has absorbed the best from Christianity, Islam and Judaism. Henry Lee is a resounding “katarismo in order.” The statutes of the Order — made up of St. Bernard is permeated with the most elevated spirit of the Catholic faith. Nevertheless, Genertor writes about the existence of Gnostic symbols in the tombs of the Templars (the evidence does not); print Abraxas may indicate the presence of some of the traditions of Gnosticism. But to categorically about this. Baphomet attributed to the Templars, has no tradition and Parallels in religious traditions of the world. Most likely it is the product of a monstrous over them in the process. The most likely version that historians have invented imaginary heresy of the Templars.
4. The Templars and the Holy Grail. The Holy Grail… the Alleged treasure of the Cathars, saved by the knights of the Order of the Temple, glorified by the famous novels, born at the court of the counts of Champagne, is closely associated with the Foundation of the Order of the Temple… the Holy Grail, clothed with a mysterious power; passing the source of all wealth and fertility on earth. The Holy Grail is legendary, but the cycle of legends about him bears the imprint of reality: godefroid of bouillon became the son of Lohengrin, the knight with the Swan, and the father of Lohengrin was Parsifal. What it is is unclear, but Wolfram von Eschenbach eight centuries ago in the novel “Parzival” (1195-1216) showed Templar the keepers of the Holy Grail, and they are not denied. According to legend, the coat of arm of one of the three knights of the Holy Grail — the Galahad — contained eight-pointed red cross on a white background. It is a badge of the Templars. Obviously, the way keepers of the Grail in the middle Ages was correlated with the image of the knights of the Temple.
We see that the Order of the Temple is a natural child of his time, with all its advantages and disadvantages. His knights were professional soldiers, and financiers — the best of the best at the time. It was somewhat surprising ease of the arrest of the Templars in France. To break into the locks and safely arrest more than five hundred knights — professional soldiers — it is impossible. The fact is that throughout the year 1307 there was a question between the Pope, the king and the Grand Master about the removal of various charges against the Order. The master himself demanded the court to justify the Order. Anybody also could not assume that all will turn so. Probably the opportunity to improve their financial Affairs and pushed Philip IV to the process.
I should say a few words on the size of the Order. In historiography there is a tendency, which, in my opinion, exaggerates its numbers: Wilke believed that in the order of about 15,000 knights; Zekler — 20000 knights; Malar de Chamber — 30000 knights. All these figures are too high and not correlated with the number of knights involved in the process. In France arrested the knights 538, Cyprus — 75 knights, Mallorca was 25 knights. And France, and Cyprus, and Mallorca were separate nastavnicheskii Order. Obviously, historians carry the number of the Order in General on the number of knights in it. More likely it appears that in total population of 20-25 thousand people, the number of knights was not more than two thousand.
Very great attention to the researchers the question of the Templar treasure. It doesn’t account for that at the time the revenues were often in kind and not in cash. Thus, the Templars received agricultural products, which mostly went to charity. Considerable sums of money from the knights Templar in October 1307 most likely was not — they were preparing for the test, and therefore made all calculations. This explanation does not claim to absolute completeness, but perhaps this clarifies a bit the question.
The property of the Order after its abolition was subjected to widespread looting of not only other spiritual congregations, but individuals. To the official history of the Order imposed some incredible set of contradictions and irrationality, moralizing, incoherence. Maybe they really had some secret, more deeply penetrated the religious and political currents of the era. No doubt one thing: according to its official Charter, the Order is Catholic. And there is no evidence that would refute it. Historians invented the imaginary heresy of the Templars.
The most striking words on the effects of the fall of the knights of the Temple belong to Charles William Genertor: “the Templars killed the whole world; chivalry, the Crusades ended with them. Even the papacy received a terrible blow. The symbolism was profoundly shocked. Have any greedy and fruitless shopping spirit. Mysticism that shed light so bright the light of past generations, found the coldness, the distrust in people’s souls. The reaction was strong, and the Templars fell under the first hard blows of the West, who sought to rebel against the East, which is still in many ways prevailed in it, ran it and oppressed it.”