At the beginning of August 2017, there are 95 ultra-high skyscrapers in the world. Architects around the world are trying to surpass previous achievements. With the development of technologies, the invention of modern building materials and the creation of fundamentally new structures, it became possible to erect buildings above 300 meters. Until the 19th century, increasing the height of buildings meant thickening the walls, which had to support the weight of the structure. Creating elevators and metal frames for walls freed the hands of architects and engineers. Now the tallest buildings in the world are striking in their grandeur and technical novelty.
2017 was a record year for the construction of skyscrapers, according to Designtalk. Last year, the construction of 144 skyscrapers with a height of more than 200 meters was completed. Tall buildings appeared in 69 cities in 23 countries, which is significantly more than in 2016 (54 cities and 18 countries).
Burj Khalifa, Dubai (UAE)
The tallest buildings in the world. Burj Khalifa.
Burj Khalifa (Arabic for “tower of the Khalifa”) is the tallest building in the world. Its height is 828 meters, with 180 meters falling on the spire. Construction of the skyscraper began in 2004. The average speed of construction is 1-2 floors per week. The Foundation of the Burj Khalifa is not fixed in the rock. The Foundation of the building used hanging piles with a length of 45 m and a diameter of 1.5 m. There are about 200 such piles in total. The shape of the building is asymmetric to reduce the effect of swaying from the wind. Four thousand people took part in the construction. The construction of the skyscraper lasted for 5 years. Continue reading
The classical expression of the Gothic style got in France — the Motherland of Gothic cathedrals. In the 12-14 centuries is the Association of French lands, the state is formed, laying the Foundation of national culture. The first monuments of French Gothic architecture originated in the province of Ile-de-France (Saint-Denis Abbot Suger), the heart of the Royal possessions. In these temples preserved some features of Romanesque architecture: the massive walls of smooth, sculpted sculpting models, the heaviness of the towers of the facade, the clarity of the compositions, calm horizontal divisions on four tiers, massive monumental simplicity of forms, the parsimony of the décor.
The greatest buildings of the early Gothic Cathedral of Notre Dame (Notre Dame, founded in 1163, completed until the mid 13th century; the crown of chapels in the early 14th century Il. 81, 82), characterized, in spite of numerous completion, the integrity of the appearance.
The hunchback of Notre Dame Continue reading
Not far from Kronstadt of water rise from the silent walls of the Fort “Emperor Alexander I” or “Plague”. The history of abandoned structures, in which a hundred years ago there was a mysterious laboratory, is still stirring imagination of residents.
What is the Fort? The word Fort comes from the Latin fortis and the French fort, which means strong and sturdy, and the fortification is to strengthen and build defensive structures.
Fort “Emperor Alexander I” (“Plague”) is one of long-term defensive structures included in the system of defense of Kronstadt. Located on a small artificial island South of Kotlin island. From 1899 to 1917 has been used as a laboratory to study the plague.
Since 1923 strengthening again passed into the hands of the military, who created the warehouse mine-sweeping equipment. And by 1983, the Fort was abandoned. Continue reading